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15 of 425 are essays by Alexis de Tocqueville

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de Tocqueville, Alexis
Democracy in America - Book 1 - Chapter 0 (Introduction)

Democracy In America - Book 1 - Chapter 1

North America divided into two vast regions, one inclining towards the Pole, the other towards the Equator - Valley of the Mississippi - Traces of the Revolutions of the Globe - Shore of the Atlantic Ocean where the English Colonies were founded - Difference in the appearance of North and of South America at the time of their Discovery - Forests of North America - Prairies -Wandering Tribes of Natives - Their outward appearance, manners, and language - Traces of an unknown people.
Democracy In America - Book 1 - Chapter 2

Utility of knowing the origin of nations in order to understand their social condition and their laws - America the only country in which the starting-point of a great people has been clearly observable - In what respects all who emigrated to British America were similar - In what they differed - Remark applicable to all Europeans who established themselves on the shores of the New World - Colonization of Virginia - Colonization of New England - Original character of the first inhabitants of New England - Their arrival - Their first laws - Their social contract - Penal code borrowed from the Hebrew legislation - Religious fervor -Republican spirit - Intimate union of the spirit of religion with the spirit of liberty.
Democracy In America - Book 1 - Chapter 3

A Social condition is commonly the result of circumstances, sometimes of laws, oftener still of these two causes united; but wherever it exists, it may justly be considered as the source of almost all the laws, the usages, and the ideas which regulate the conduct of nations; whatever it does not produce it modifies. It is therefore necessary, if we would become acquainted with the legislation and the manners of a nation, to begin by the study of its social condition.
Democracy In America - Book 1 - Chapter 4

It predominates over the whole of society in America - Application made of this principle by the Americans even before their Revolution - Development given to it by that Revolution - Gradual and irresistible extension of the elective qualification.
Democracy In America - Book 1 - Chapter 5 - Part 1

It is proposed to examine in the following chapter what is the form of government established in America on the principle of the sovereignty of the people; what are its resources, its hindrances, its advantages, and its dangers.
Democracy In America - Book 1 - Chapter 5 - Part 2

Democracy In America - Book 1 - Chapter 5 - Part 3

Democracy In America - Book 1 - Chapter 6

The Anglo-Americans have retained the characteristics of judicial power which are common to all nations - They have, however, made it a powerful political organ - How - In what the judicial system of the Anglo-Americans differs from that of all other nations - Why the American judges have the right of declaring the laws to be unconstitutional - How they use this right -Precautions taken by the legislator to prevent its abuse.
Democracy In America - Book 1 - Chapter 7

Definition of political jurisdiction - What is understood by political jurisdiction in France, in England, and in the United States - In America the political judge can only pass sentence on public officers - He more frequently passes a sentence of removal from office than a penalty - Political jurisdiction as it exists in the United States is, notwithstanding its mildness, and perhaps in consequence of that mildness, a most powerful instrument in the hands of the majority.



Democracy In America - Book 1 - Chapter 8 - Part 1

I have hitherto considered each State as a separate whole, and I have explained the different springs which the people sets in motion, and the different means of action which it employs. But all the States which I have considered as independent are forced to submit, in certain cases, to the supreme authority of the Union. The time is now come for me to examine separately the supremacy with which the Union has been invested, and to cast a rapid glance over the Federal Constitution. Origin of the first Union - Its weakness - Congress appeals to the constituent authority - Interval of two years between this appeal and the promulgation of the new Constitution.
Democracy In America - Book 1 - Chapter 8 - Part 2

Democracy In America - Book 1 - Chapter 8 - Part 3

When the head of the executive power is re-eligible, it is the State which is the source of intrigue and corruption - The desire of being re-elected the chief aim of a President of the United States - Disadvantage of the system peculiar to America - The natural evil of democracy is that it subordinates all authority to the slightest desires of the majority - The re-election of the President encourages this evil.
Democracy In America - Book 1 - Chapter 8 - Part 4

Natural weakness of the judiciary power in confederations - Legislators ought to strive as much as possible to bring private individuals, and not States, before the Federal Courts - How the Americans have succeeded in this - Direct prosecution of private individuals in the Federal Courts - Indirect prosecution of the States which violate the laws of the Union - The decrees of the Supreme Court enervate but do not destroy the provincial laws.
Democracy In America - Book 1 - Chapter 8 - Part 5

Happiness and freedom of small nations - Power of great nations - Great empires favorable to the growth of civilization - Strength often the first element of national prosperity - Aim of the Federal system to unite the twofold advantages resulting from a small and from a large territory -Advantages derived by the United States from this system - The law adapts itself to the exigencies of the population; population does not conform to the exigencies of the law - Activity, amelioration, love and enjoyment of freedom in the American communities - Public spirit of the Union the abstract of provincial patriotism - Principles and things circulate freely over the territory of the United States - The Union is happy and free as a little nation, and respected as a great empire.