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Lee Cronbach

Professor Emeritus of Psychology at Stanford University, preeminent expert in evaluative testing of students, co-author (with Richard Snow) of Aptitudes and Instructional Methods (1977, Irvington, New York)

We once hoped that instructional methods might be found whose outcomes correlated very little with general ability. This does not appear to be a viable hope. Outcomes from extended instruction almost always correlate with pre-tested ability unless a ceiling is artificially imposed.

1977 - from Aptitudes and Instructional Methods, Irvington, New York (with Richard Snow)