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Richard Snow
1937 - 1998

Professor Emeritus of Psychology and Education at Stanford University, preeminent expert in evaluative testing of students, co-author (with Lee Cronbach) of Aptitudes and Instructional Methods (1977, Irvington, New York)


We once hoped that instructional methods might be found whose outcomes correlated very little with general ability. This does not appear to be a viable hope. Outcomes from extended instruction almost always correlate with pre-tested ability unless a ceiling is artificially imposed.

1977 - from Aptitudes and Instructional Methods, Irvington, New York (with Lee Cronbach)