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Alfredo Rocco

Former advisor to Benito Mussolini, responsible for forging the ideological foundation for Mussolini's actions and Italy's brand of fascism. Rocco conceived a state which accepted capitalism through a forced union of labor and capital, and which built support from the masses by guaranteeing full employment and higher wages. Author of The Political Doctrine of Fascism.


[Fascism proposes] the necessity, for which the older doctrines make little allowance, of sacrifice, even up to the total immolation of individuals, on behalf of society... For Liberalism (i.e., individualism), the individual is the end and society the means; nor is it conceivable that the individual, considered in the dignity of an ultimate finality, be lowered to mere instrumentality. For Fascism, society is the end, individuals the means, and its whole life consists in using individuals as instruments for its social ends.

1932 - from The Political Doctrine of Fascism