Augustinian monk, professor of theology at Wittenberg University, parish priest, church reformer. In 1517, Luther spoke out against the growing practice of selling indulgences (money in exchange for salvation) by the Roman Catholic church. He was castigated by the papacy, and even threatened with being burned at the stake by others in the church, but developed a following of reformers who helped him to endure his banishment from the church and continue preaching. He married in 1525, and in 1526 helped secure legal permission for his protestant reforms of the church. He continued to write and publish prolifically, including a 1534 complete translation of the Bible, until his death.