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Thomas S. Kuhn
1922 - 1996

Physicist, philosopher, and science historian, professor at Harvard, University of California-Berkley, Princeton, and Massacheusetts Institute of Technology, awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship (1954) and the George Sarton Medal in the History of Science (1982). Kuhn also held honorary degrees from Columbia University and the universities of Notre Dame, Chicago, Padua, and Athens. Author of The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962)


... normal science usually holds creative philosophy at arm's length, and probably for good reasons.

1962 - from The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
The man who is striving to solve a problem defined by existing knowledge and technique is not just looking around. He knows what he wants to achieve, and he designs his instruments and directs his thoughts accordingly.

1962 - from The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
The transition from a paradigm in crisis to a new one from which a new tradition of normal science can emerge is far from a cumulative process ... Rather it is a reconstruction of the field from new fundamentals, a reconstruction that changes some of the field's most elementary theoretical generalizations...

1962 - from The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
... novelty emerges only with difficulty, manifested by resistance, against a background provided by expectation.

1962 - from The Structure of Scientific Revolutions
Communication across the revolutionary divide is inevitably partial.

1962 - from The Structure of Scientific Revolutions