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Leszek Kolakowski

Professor of philosophy, Oxford University and University of Chicago, member of the editorial board of the Journal of Democracy, humanist philosopher and Marxist who has studied the evolution of socialist societies from founding humanism to inevitable dogmatism


The influence Marxism has achieved, far from being the result or proof of its scientific character, is almost entirely due to its prophetic, fantastic and irrational elements... Almost all the prophecies of Marx and his followers have already proved to be false, but this does not disturb the spiritual certainty of the faithful...for it is a certainty not based on any empirical premises or supposed 'historical laws', but simply on the psychological need for certainty. In this sense Marxism performs the function of religion...